Great Nemaha Agency Collection, 1866-1873

Collection Summary

Title: Great Nemaha Agency Collection, 1866-1873
Call Number: MS 94-07
Size: 1.0 linear feet
Acquisition: Purchased from Frontier America, 1993
Processed By: AG, 1994; JEF, 4-8-1999; MN, 10-2008; MN, 9-2014
Note: None
Restrictions: None

Literary Rights

Literary rights were not granted to Wichita State University. When permission is granted to examine the manuscripts, it is not an authorization to publish them. Manuscripts cannot be used for publication without regard for common law literary rights, copyright laws and the laws of libel. It is the responsibility of the researcher and his/her publisher to obtain permission to publish. Scholars and students who eventually plan to have their work published are urged to make inquiry regarding overall restrictions on publication before initial research.

Content Note

This collection is comprised of letters from three agents who represented the Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians of Missouri. The Great Nemaha Agency of Nebraska were assigned these tribes as wards, and so appointed John A. Burbank, Chauncey H. Norris and Thomas Lightfoot as Indian agents. The letters date between 1866 and 1873. The usual duties of coordinating the material needs of the Indians such as subsistence, farming implements, livestock, burial supplies, and home improvements with the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Northern Superintendency, headquartered in Omaha, are reported.

Detailed Description: Box and Folder Listing

Box 1  

Great Nemaha Agency letterbook, 1866-1873

 

 

Itemized description of the contents of the letterbook by Avis German, collection processor, presented below.

Front matter

Item 1

A clipping of Public Statute number 33, an Act to prohibit the sale of intoxicating drinks to Indians, providing penalties therefore, and for other purposes, approved January 30, 1897. The law imposes imprisonment for a minimum of sixty days and a minimum fine of $100 for the first offense, and $200 for each succeeding one, for dispensing intoxicants to any Indian under supervision of the government. Defense to any such charge is provided if and when the acts were done by authority of the War Department or any of its officers. A note designating the copy “For special attention and guidance of agents, school superintendents and other officials and employes (sic) in the Indian service.” Signed by D. M. Browning, Commissioner February 10, 1897.

Page 1-2

Item 2

The next few pages include a partial index of entries. Letters written from the Great Nemaha Agency. John A. Burbank, United States Indian Agent, to C. B. Taylor, superintendent of Indian Affairs, Omaha, Nebraska Territory, February 13, 1866. Regarding the accounts submitted by the agent, who asserts that the superintendent erroneously assumed he had funds in his possession, belonging to the Iowas, sufficient to pay the employees after discharging the farmer. The agent argues that he needs $1,635 to pay the Iowa employees. There was an unsolved problem regarding his proposed discharge of the agency carpenter. A new roof for the agency house is urgently needed. The agent needs $1,000 formerly requested from Iowa annuities for agriculture. The estimate for the first quarter of 1866 is for a total of $1,755.

Page 3

Item 3

John A. Burbank to E. B. Taylor, February 19, 1866. Enclosing an account in the amount of $66.60 from a doctor for medicines provided for the Iowa Indians. The writer calls attention to an account for $139.50 formerly sent with an inquiry as to whether the Indians should continue to receive their medications as is the past several years. No reply had been received. The writer requests that the doctor he paid the amount due him and that his questions be answered.

Page 4

Item 4

C. H. Norris, United States Indian Agent at the Great Nemaha Agency, Hobart, Nebraska, to E. B. French, second auditor, Washington, D. C., August 7, 1868. The agent responds to an audit for the fractional second, third, and fourth quarters of 1866. He explains a suspended amount abstract for the third quarter, 1866, by stating that the provisions were bought in open market, as instructed by E. B. Taylor, to relieve a “starving conditions” of the Sac and Fox Indians of Missouri until a contract could be negotiated. The accounts previously submitted were current for the first quarter of 1867.

Page 5

Item 5

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, superintendent of Indian Affairs, Omaha, Nebraska, August 26, 1868. The writer is transmitting his annual report, the agency teacher’s report, and a statistical account of farming and education.

Page 5

Item 6

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, September 28, 1868. Acknowledging receipt of a letter transmitting receipts for $2,625 for signature. The writer is returning them and requests that the money be sent by express mail in order that he may pay the agency employees and prepare his quarterly returns. The Iowas and Sacs are visiting the Otoes. The writer will prepare their payrolls as soon as they return approximately October 5.

Page 6

Item 7

C. H. Norris to N. G. Taylor, October 2, 1868. The writer is replying to a letter of September 4, 1868. With a statement of exceptions to the agency accounts for the second and third quarters, 1867. He is returning them with corrections, if necessary, and documentation.

Page 7

Item 8

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, superintendent at Omaha, Nebraska, October 9, 1868. The writer is enclosing three copies of his quarterly returns for the third quarter, 1868, one copy for the superintendent’s office, one for the Commissioner, and one for the Second Auditor of the Treasury.

Page 8

Item 9

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, December 28, 1868. The Iowa and Sac and Fox Indians of Missouri desired permission to send delegation to Washington, D. C., to make a treaty for the purpose of dispensing of their lands and removing to the new Indian Territory south of Kansas or the new reserve north of Nebraska. Transportation and subsistence for six delegates and one interpreter from the Iowas in addition to three delegates one interpreter were desired.

Page 9

Item 10

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, January 5, 1869. Transmitting reports of employees for the fourth quarter of 1868, in triplicate.

Page 9

Item 11

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, January 6, 1869. Transmitting estimates for agency expenses for the first and second quarters of 1869, in duplicate.

Page 10

Item 12

Enclosing, in duplicate, estimates for Blanks to be used by the agency.

Page 10

Item 13

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, superintendent, Omaha, Nebraska, January 6, 1869. The writer has sent by mail three copies of the Agency returns for the fourth quarter of 1868, one copy for the superintendent, one for the Commissioner, and one for the second Auditor of the Treasury.

Page 11

Item 14

C. H. Norris to Colonel H. B. Denman, March 3, 1869. Transmitting in triplicate a special accounting of expenses incurred by the delegation of Iowa and Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, with agent Norris to Washington, D. C., and the return. The expenditures exceed the allocation by $20.15: $7.12 for the Iowas and $13.03 for the Sacs and Foxes. It was necessary for them and remain in Washington one day later than originally planned.

Page 12

Item 15

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, April 1, 1869. Enclosing the resignation of John N. Gere as teacher of the Iowa Indian school. The writer has appointed M. L. Norris, effective April 1, 1869, to fill the vacancy at a monthly salary of $50, subject to approval of the Department.

Page 12

Item 16

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, April 3, 1869. The writer has mailed three copies of the quarterly returns for the first quarter of 1869.

Page 11

Item 17

(There is an error in that duplicate page numbers 11 and 12 were assigned.) C. H. Norris to J. P. Fenton, Chief Clerk, superintendent’s office, April 3, 1869. Acknowledging receipt of the clerk’s letter of March 27, 1869, enclosing tabular statements of accounts for purchase of seed wheat for the Iowas, also a letter from H. B. Denman with a transfer receipt in the amount of $125 for signature. The writer has prepared his returns for the first quarter of 1869; but there are not enough blanks in the office until he receives the supply he requested January 8, 1869. It appears that there were enough funds in his accounts to pay for them at the close of the quarter. The writer is therefore returning the receipts without signing them and requests a new set dated within the current month.

Page 12

Item 18

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, May 1, 1869. The writer encloses an estimate of agency funds for the second quarter, 1869. The writer calls attention to his estimate dated January 6, 1869, for the first and second quarters of the year. The Indians are much in need of their last quarter’s pay and will suffer from lack of food unless they are paid before the end of the current month.

Page 12

Item 19

The writer again calls attention to his request for office blanks dated January 6, 1869. The agency office is now destitute for them and cannot submit another return without them.

Page 13

Item 20

C. H. Norris to H. B. Denman, May 1, 1869. Enclosing a second estimate for agency funds, second quarter of 1869. The Commissioner did not send the money for the second quarter requested together with one for the first quarter, or January 6, 1869.

Pages 14 and 15 are blank.

 

 

Page 16

Item 21

Thomas Lightfoot, U.S. Indian Agent, at the Great Nemaha Agency, Hobart, Nebraska, sixth month 28th 1869, to S. M. Janney, superintendent of Indian Affairs at Omaha, Nebraska. The writer has visited the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri and found they were farming very little. In council with him, they said they wanted teams and implements but had not received them. They are greatly in debt to their trader and will not have enough for another year’s subsistence if they purchase them from their annuities. It will be a benefit to the tribe if any funds could be supplied to support farming. The agent Lightfoot’s manner of dating his letters and the dialect indicates that he is a member of the Religious society of Friends, commonly called “Quakers.” President Ulysses S. Grant initiated the policy of employing them in the Administration of Indian Affairs because they were humane in their treatment of minority races.

Page 16

Item 22

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 6th month, 30th 1869. The writer encloses the resignation of Mary L. Norris as teacher of the Iowa school. He has appointed Mary B. Lightfoot to fill the vacancy at a monthly salary of $50, effective 7th month, 1st 1869, subject to approval of the Indian Department.

Page 16

Item 23

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 6th month, 30th 1869. This letter constitutes the report of the writer since assuming his duties June 4, 1869. Although school has been in session every attendance is “small,” due, the writer believes, to it being the “berry seasons.” The carpenter has one frame house for an Indian ready for roofing. The blacksmith has been busy. Both tribes are healthy. The Iowas have some corn but no wheat crop. Purchasing their flour takes so much of their money that they do not have enough for other necessities. They have promised to break and fence more ground if the teams and implements are provided for them. The agent will encourage them to use and properly conserve the means to farm when they receive them. It is bad for men and boys to live in idleness while their families are poor. They have an abundance of good wheat land. There is a schoolhouse on the Sac and Fox land; but no teacher for it. They are located approximately six miles from the Iowas and from the agency. They have planted no wheat and very little corn, but had promised to raise crops and gardens if provided with teams and implements for which the writer was enclosing estimates. A mowing machine is especially needed.

Page 19

Item 24

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 7th month, 15th 1869. The Iowas held a council the 7th month, 13th 1869 and requested $1,000 worth of provisions in flour, meat, sugar, coffee, and one barrel of salt. The writer believes the tribe, especially the women and children, are poor and needy. They were so much in debt to their trader that all their annuities would be required to pay him.

Page 19 and 20

Item 25

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 7th month, 15th 1869. Enclosing Agency estimates for the third quarter, 1869. The Sacs and Foxes have held a council with the writer and want allocation of $5,000 of their annuities to pay their debts to the trader and balance their budget in the spring. The writer encloses bills for traveling expenses of himself and Mary B. Lightfoot from their former home to the agency. He again calls attention to the estimates for cattle and farm implements. An agency farmer is needed to supervise and promote necessary changes. Please visit their agency and discuss their matter with me.

Page 21

Item 26

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 7th month, 27th 1869. The writer encloses an estimate for third quarter 1869 agency funds and a bill of his traveling expenses from his home to the agency.

Page 21

Item 27

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney , 8th month, 5th 1869. Acknowledging receipt of a letter from Janney regarding estimates for a pump being granted by the Department, with instructions to submit estimates only once in each quarter “unless absolutely necessary to submit them oftener.” The writer also acknowledges a request that he send the annual report early enough for it to reach the Department of the Interior before October 1, 1869. He has received statements of funds to pay employees and install a pump at the agency, with receipts which he will sign and return.

Page 22

Item 28

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 8th month, 9th 1869. The writer is unable to buy the cattle and implements for the Iowa Indians or the recipient directed in a letter of July 26, 1869, in open market with certified vouchers to the sellers, who would submit them to the Commissioner of Indian Affair for payment. The western men are not willing to operate as this varies. The agent has purchased a mowing machine but it has not been delivered.

Page 23

Item 29

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 8th month, 9th 1869. The Sacs and Foxes have requested the writer to ask the government for $500 worth of provisions in flour, meat, and one barrel of salt. The agent believes they will suffer before receiving their annuities if something is not done.

Page 24 is blank.

 

 

There is an insert, item 30, written on both sides, between page 24 and page 25.

Item 30

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 8th month, 25th 1869. The writer has been unable to buy the oxen and farm implements as requested because the vendors were not willing to sell them on those terms. He has bought a mowing machine for $113 , but has not paid for it and wants to do so. If he could acquire the funds or write checks, he could buy the oxen and farm equipment, but they are not willing to accept vouchers to be sent to Washington. The Iowas need six yokes of oxen, eight wagons, four two-horse plows, three sets of donkey harness, supplies for the blacksmith shop, and lumber for the carpenter and wheelwright. Some of the purchases could wait until spring. Fewer cattle and a few horses might be advantageous. A good strong team, wagon, and harness are much needed now.

Page 25

Item 31

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 8th month 30th, 1869. Enclosing the agency report to September 1, 1869, the teachers’ report of the Iowa Indians school, and a statistical report on farming and education.

Unnumbered page

Item 32

Yearly report, office copy from Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, n.d. The Indians number 84 men, women, and children. They do little farming, have no school, no government agent is stationed on the reserve. They depend almost entirely on their annuities for subsistence and clothing; appear to be unsettled and would like to be moving.

Two unnumbered loose pages

Item 33

To “Respected friends,” unsigned, 8th month 30th 1869. This report or the affairs of this Agency is submitted in compliance with the regulations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Iowas and Foxes of Missouri are in good health. There are 228 of the Iowas. They have done some farming but not enough. They process corn and potatoes for winter. They live on “some of the best land in the United States.” Now being supplied stock and farm implements. The agent recommends that a Manual Labor school be established on the reserve and a farmer he employed in connection with it. The students could live in a house already near the schoolhouse. The Iowa school is functioning and well attended. Please refer to the teacher’s report for statistics of education. The carpenter is performing well as wagon maker in addition to carpenter. Has built one new frame house for an Indian. The Iowas are entirely temperate and have formed a Temperance Organization among themselves. Two have a policeman to report anything that is wrong to me. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri, constituting a part of this agency are approximately six miles west of the Agency house and office.

Unnumbered page

Item 34

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 8th month, 31st 1869. Acknowledgment receipt of a letter dated the 29th asking at what point on the river the implements should be sent. The nearest and best point is White Cloud, Kansas, about six miles from the agency. In response to your comment that you did not see how we could use eight wagons with six yoke of oxen, we now have two or three yoke of cattle and some horses, but are short of wagons. In a few days the writer will send a description of iron, tools, lumber, etc., needed in the shops. The agent will come or send for the horses and wagons when they arrive. The writer has not been told how he is to pay for the mowing machine. His idea is that the cattle wagons, etc., are for use of the entire tribe, not claimed by individuals.

Page 28

Item 35

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month, 6th 1869. Encloses a voucher and bill for a mowing machine. The recipient has requested information as to the price the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes were to have for their land in the treaty which is not yet ratified. The Iowas were to have $2.50 per acre for their 16,000 acres. The Sacs and Foxes were to have $2.00 per acre for their 16,000 acres. The writer is not informed as to the other.

Page 29

Item 36

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month, 15th 1869. The writer thanks Janney for some suggestions, but one regarding the reservations farmer does not convey the idea Lightfoot intended in that his work with the boys “should be in assisting and overseeing the Indians in their proposed extensive farming operations.” The Indians would like to receive their annuities as soon as possible “as our Indians are all broke at the traders.”

Page 30

Item 37

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month, 16th 1869. A delegation of railroad nem have visited the writer seeking the right-of-way across the reservation, also to buy and cut timber to build bridges across the Great Nemaha River in two places-on the Sac and Fox reserve seven or eight miles west of the agency. The Indians do not object, and the writer granted the right-of-way. The Indians with to sell their land and move, and the writer recommends that the railroad to be allowed to buy the timber.

Page 31

Item 38

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month 18th 1869. Enclosing a receipt for the Agency funds. The money should be sent by express to Forest City because it is difficult for the agency employees to cash checks at their location. The money is much needed.

Page 32

Item 39

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month, 25th, 1869. The superintendent’s letter was received yesterday, “checks and all right.”

Page 33

Item 40

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 9th month, 30th 1869. In his quarterly report, the writer states that the health of the Iowas, Sacs and Foxes is better than it was some weeks previously. They have been busy cutting and curing hay for their cattle and ponies. They are encouraged by possession and use of a new mowing machine. As many as forty children often attend the Iowa Indian school and are learning well.

Page 34

Item 41

The writer acknowledges receipt of Janney’s letter with drafts for $1,450.68. The delay in replying is due to illness of the writer’s wife, who has improved. He desires that the superintendent bring the money for his salary to the agency.

Page 35

Item 42

This letter, written on both sides of the pages, is not signed nor dated, but obviously from Thomas Lightfoot to superintendent Janney. The writer encloses an estimate. He expects to leave for his home the second day after writing. Everything requested is needed for comfort and advancement in civilization of the Indians. An industrial home where the children can learn the English language and habits of civilization is needed in connection with the present school. Perhaps eight or ten families could be settled in a house next year, not all of them would take care of a house, but some would. The writer believes the blacksmith shop “should be supplied without pay.”

Page 36

Item 43

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 10th month, 20th 1869. Enclosing estimates for the Agency expenses, fourth quarter of the year. It includes $50 to pay an educated Indian woman who serves as interpreter and assistant in the Iowa Indian school. The school has nearly forty students, and the teacher needs help. He requests $180 for the carpenter and wagon maker. There is a separate estimate for much needed horses, wagon, and clothing for police.

Page 37

Item 44

Thomas Lightfoot to Samuel M. Janney, 10th month, 23rd 1869. Enclosing receipts for a wagon and harness which were “turned over” to the agency. Also included are the amounts the agent paid for freight and to a person who came to Omaha for some horses which were to be “turned over” to the agency but were “not fit for use.” Also enclosed is a copy of a treaty made with the Indians of the agency.

Page 38

Item 45

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10th month, 30th 1869. In his monthly report, Lightfoot states that there have been no noteworthy changes subsequent to his last one. There are more than 60 on the roll of the Iowa school. Two teachers, one to serve as assistant and interpreter, are needed. The health of both tribes is good.

Page 39

Item 46

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 1st 1869. Subject to Janney’s approval, the agent has employed Vinson Tigner to replace a deceased blacksmith.

Page 40

Item 47

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 5th 1869. The writer has received instructions from the Department regarding the railroad. The president of it has indicated willingness to pay $5.00 an acre for the land. A list of prices offered for the timber is enclosed. The Board members wish to buy six acres of land on which to build a depot. Lightfoot recommends that the railroad be required to cut the timber at two points where the road will cross the Nemaha [River]. The president will send a draft of the ground to be occupied by the road.

Page 41

Item 48

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 11th 1869. Enclosing certified vouchers to pay for two yoke of oxen for the Iowa tribe and a farm wagon for the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri. All were bought from parties in White Cloud, Kansas.

Page 42

Item 49

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney , 11th month, 12th 1869. Enclosing certified vouchers to purchase tools and materials for the Iowa blacksmith and carpenter shops from a firm in White Cloud, Kansas.

Page 43

Item 50

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 21st 1869. Executives of the Burlington and Southwest Railroad Company are not willing to pay the requested price for the ties for their road. It is higher than they are paying others. They say they will pay our price for the bridge timber because they cannot get it elsewhere. There is a large amount of cut timber on the reservation which in many instances would make ties if sawed, but they cannot be split. The writer believes it would be advantageous to sell the ties they can use for 15 each, and require them all the down timber here is fit for use. They wish to erect a portable sawmill on the reservation and saw their bridge timber and ties. Then they could use timber which they otherwise could not. The writer does not think they should be allowed to use wood to operate their mill unless they pay for it. They say they will remove the mill from the reservations as soon as they finish the sawing. Our agreement does not give them liberty to use their mill on the reservation. If we require them to sign it they will not take the ties.

Page 44

Item 50

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 27th 1869. Enclosing vouchers to purchase two yoke of oxen for the Iowas and one for the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri.

Page 45

Item 51

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 27th 1869. Enclosing signed receipts for $1,527.36. The agent would prefer three drafts on New York as was done at the close of the previous year. He cannot cash checks where he is without paying a percentage.

Page 46

Item 52

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 27th 1869. The writer has learned that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs is not willing to furnish horses and a wagon for use of the agency. The agent believes they are indispensable.

Page 47

Item 52

The Commissioner is willing to allow only $50 for contingencies. The agent cannot find his own team and do what is essential with only this amount. Other agents are supplied with a team with which to work.

Page 47

Item 53

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 30th 1869. The Iowas and Sacs and Foxes of Missouri believe some money belong to them was “laying with” the Department. They would like to have to appropriated in some manner by which they can derive some benefit from it. It is the proceeds of some land that was sold and no appropriation made for it.

Page 48

Item 54

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month, 1st 1869. The writer requests permission to begin a four to six weeks’ leave of absence from the reservation beginning about mid-January 1870, to attend to business in the East.

Page 49

Item 55

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month, 20th 1869. Enclosing signed vouchers for $26.00. The writer has not received a reply to his letter of November 21, 1869, of the effect that the Burlington and Southwest Railroad was not willing to pay the desired price for ties. The executives were arranging to get their timber elsewhere.

Page 50

Item 56

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month, 21st 1869. Of $300 allocated to purchase clothing for the police, the agent has used $160, leaving a balance of $138. May this be used to buy flour for the Iowas? The agent can buy good flour in the desired quantity for $2.25 per 100 pounds while the trader is charging them $4.00 per hundred.

Page 51

Item 57

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney 12th month, 27th 1869. Enclosing Agreement and Band with the Burlington and Southwest Railroad. The executives have acquired considerable timber for bridges elsewhere. The acting President says they will have a plot drawn, ascertained the area of land, be ready to pay for it, and pay for the timber by the specified time. The Sacs and Foxes are now cutting ties.

Page 52

Item 58

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 1st month, 1st 1870. E. D. Pratt has accepted an agreement to work the coal mines. The writer approves highly of having the rich coal mines developed. The Iowa Indians are willing.

Page 53

Item 59

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 1st month, 26th 1870. Enclosing a check for $87.00 received for chips and light wood cut and left by the railroad company. The Indians want this money spent in the spring for their benefit. The agent will sent an estimate soon.

Page 54

Item 60

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 2nd month, 12th 1870. The writer responds to the superintendent’s question by stating he approves of friends raising money to stock the Indians trading house and employing a clerk to attend it. The Indians have been charged extravagant prices.

Page 54

Item 61

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 2nd month, 18th 1870. The unsatisfactory Band was returned to the acting President of the railroad company. He said that they would be ready to pay for the ground and timber before another band could be ready. The writer has gone to check on it but did not find them. He will try again.

Page 55

Item 62

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 2nd month, 18th 1870. Enclosing signed receipts in triplicate for $1,173.75. The writer regrets that a team cannot be furnished for business because funds are so low. The coal mines are working.

Page 56

Item 63

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 2nd month, 21st 1870. Since last October there has been considerable sickness among the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes. The agent thinks arrangements should be made to pay the doctor bills and for coffins before the annuity is divided April 1. The doctor has been very kind and helpful.

Page 57

Item 64

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 2nd month, 21st 1870. A fund has been granted to buy cattle and farm implements for the Iowas from a fund designated to build a bridge across the Great Nemaha River. Part of it has been used to buy wagons, plows, and four yoke of oxen. A balance estimated for ten yoke of cattle was left. The writer requests permission to buy horses and plows, and fewer cattle.

Page 58

Item 65

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 3rd month, 3rd 1870. The Iowas and Sacs and Foxes frequently ask the amount of annuity they may draw each year. The writer believes this, and other questions when they arise-to keep the confidence of the Indians. Please let us know the amount to come April 1. It is not desired that any of it he used for stock or implements.

Page 58

Item 66

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 3rd month, 23rd 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers for $435 to buy three yoke oxen from W. A. Margrave of Richardson County, Nebraska, at $145 per yoke.

Page 59

Item 67

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 11th 1870. The Commissioner of Indian Affairs has asked whether clothing purchased under three vouchers was in compliance with the Act of Congress approved March 2, 1861. The office was so void of information when Lightfoot came that he cannot find the law. He bought them in open market by verbal instructions from the superintendent and was not aware of it if it was not legal. The Indians had complained much that clothing of wrong sizes was bought for them. He had tried to buy the needed sizes, but wishes to comply with the regulations.

Page 60

Item 68

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 11th 1870. Enclosing accounts and certificates of issue from the agency school teacher, carpenter, and the agent; also certificates from witnesses of payments to the interpreter and others for the second, third, and fourth quarters of 1869. A copy of a letter of estate administration was emitted with the third quarter report because the agent was not aware that it was necessary.

Page 61

Item 69

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 14th 1870. Enclosing vouchers for purchase of two yoke of oxen for the Iowa tribe.

Page 61

Item 70

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 16th 1870. A letter from the Commissioner explaining the friends of the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes has been read and explained to them. They were pleased to know what is to come each year. All that was due them April 1 should be sent soon because they are very needful of subsistence and will be until the year’s corn and potato crops ripen.

Page 62

Item 71

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 18th 1870. Submitting the amount to be retained to pay employees for the Iowa tribe, second quarter 1870: Teacher-$150; assistant teacher-$50; carpenter-$180.00; blacksmith-$150.00; a pension-$25.00.

Page 63

Item 72

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 18th 1870. Pratt Williams and Company are working “in a very small way.” with only four or five hands at work, on the leased coal banks up to April 1, 1870.

Page 63

Item 73

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 4th month, 23rd 1870. Enclosing vouchers for purchase of two yokes of work cattle from W. A. Margrave for the Iowa Indians at $147.50 per yoke.

Page 64

Item 74

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 2nd 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers to purchase plows and material for the Iowas.

Page 64

Item 75

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 6th 1870. Enclosing a request of the Iowa chiefs and headmen regarding payment of doctor bills and a bill for coffins.

Page 65

Item 76

Resolution by the chiefs and headmen of the Iowa tribe, 5th month, 6th 1870. They wish to have the doctor bill and bill for coffins paid from their annuity as a “national debt” before division of the funds among the tribe.

Page 66

Item 77

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 11th 1870. Acknowledging triplicate receipts which the writer will sign and return. How shall he buy the cattle and implements for the Iowas, and how shall he dispose of them, i.e. “if they are to be taken on my property return or just issue them to the Iowa tribe?” The Burlington and Southwestern Railroad Company has paid $163.60 for 32.72 acres as right-of-way through the Sac and Fox reserves. They will pay for timber and ties. What shall the writer do with the money?

Page 67

Item 78

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 15th 1870. Enclosing license and band of Henry Jones as trader with the Iowa and Sac and Fox tribes. Please advise the writer about this as soon as possible. The former trader has resigned, there is no trader, and one is needed.

Page 68

Item 79

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 26th 1870. The writer has received blanks for reports to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, but there were no property returns and only two for farming. More will be needed to prepare the returns for submission at the end of the 9th month.

Page 68

Item 80

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 28th 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers for purchase of two horses from Z. C. Germain, White Cloud, Kansas, for the Iowa tribe.

Page 69

Item 81

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 28 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers for iron, tools, plows, etc. The writer has received a letter from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs stating that only one copy of vouchers had been received, and the writer would be charged until receipt of a duplicate. The writer believes he has been sending three copies.

Page 70

Item 82

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 5th month, 28th 1870. Enclosing signed duplicate receipts in the amount of $465.75. The writer hopes the superintendent will bring the funds to pay the employees.

Page 70

Item 83

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 6th month, 8th 1870. The writer encloses property returns for the third and fourth quarters, 1868, and hopes they will be satisfactory.

Page 71

Item 84

The writer, in the fourth month last, sent certified vouchers to purchase two yokes of working cattle from W. H. Margrave, who says he has been informed that they had been received and allowed and the draft sent. Margrave says he has not received the draft. Where and why is the delay?

Page 72

Item 85

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 1st 1870. Enclosed signed triplicate receipts in the amount of $705.

Page 72

Item 86

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 1st 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers to purchase one horse from John Cash, Forest City, Missouri, for the Iowa tribe.

Page 73

Item 87

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 19th 1870. Enclosing estimate for funds for the third quarter of 1870, including a spring wagon, two horses for use of the agency, and $300 to buy clothing, books, etc., for the Iowa Indian school. The writer requests permission to buy in open market, which is much more advantageous than advertising.

Page 74

Item 88

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month 19th, 1870. Enclosing an estimate representing a small salary increase for the teacher of the Iowa school. A sewing department after regular school hours, has added much to her duties. She also cuts, fits, and distribute goods and clothing sent by friends.

Page 75

Item 89

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 19th 1870. Regarding vaccination of the Indians. All or nearly all of the Iowas were vaccinated but not one had the desired effect. Perhaps the vaccine sent was not good.

Page 76

Item 90

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 21st 1870. The writer’s accounts indicate that $3,363.41 has been spent from $3,500(set apart to build a bridge across the Great Nemaha River), for stock, implements, etc., for the Iowa tribe. Has any interest accrued on the $3,500? The writer does not wish to respond.

Page 77

Item 91

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 7th month, 25th 1870. The writer is taking the census of the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes, and of white persons living on the reservation. The interpreter assists with identification as he goes from place to place.

Page 78

Item 92

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 8th month, 26th 1870. Enclosing vouchers to purchase a mowing machine for the Sacs and Foxes for $140.

Page 79

Item 93

Annual report, unsigned but obviously from Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 8th month, 30th 1870 (covers five handwritten pages over page 79). There are 214 Iowas, 58 men, 58 women, and 98 children. Their general condition is improving, and intemperance has almost vanished although they are surrounded by facilities to obtain liquor. The Society of Friends has contributed clothing and sanitary stores to them. The Indians are pursuing agriculture since they have acquired implements and horses, sixteen frame and log houses within the agency are occupied by Indian families. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri live on a reservation about six miles west of the agency. They want to sell most of their land and purchase a portion of the Iowa reserve and move closer to the agency. Thus they could derive the benefits of schools, carpenter and blacksmith shops by paying part of their expenses. The Indians would like to have an industrial home established. Their trading house is replacing Indian goods with white peoples’ goods.

Page 80

Item 94

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 1st 1870. The Iowas and the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri were well represented at a council conducted 8th month, 23rd 1870. The Sacs and Foxes are willing to sell them some land. Their chiefs expressed a desire to go to Washington and have the contract written.

Page 81

Item 95

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 1st 1870. The Iowas have one or two yokes of work cattle that are to old to keep. The agent asks permission to dispose of them and use the proceeds to buy horses for the tribe.

Page 81

Item 96

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 1st 1870. Enclosing annual report for the year ending 9th month, 1st 1870, with the teacher’s report.

Page 82

Item 97

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 2nd 1870. The writer requests leave of absence for approximately two weeks to rent his farm in Pennsylvania.

Page 83

Item 98

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 3rd 1870. Enclosing vouchers to purchase implements, etc., for the Sacs and Foxes with money received from the Burlington and Southwest Railroad Company.

Page 84

Item 99

No signature, but probably from Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9/8/1870. The writer requests permission to buy seven or eight stoves and some bedsteads for Indians who live in log and frame houses at a cost of approximately $300.

Page 84

Item 100

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month 11th 1870. Regarding the statistics for the annual report, i.e. 214 Iowas and 80 Sacs and Foxes, incorrect. The writer has sent copies of the census to the Clerk of the County Court.

Page 85

Item 101

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9/29/1870. The writer acknowledges receipt of a letter regarding distribution of $30,000 appropriated by Congress for the Northern Superintendency. He encloses an estimate of $1,470.18 for his Agency.

Page 86

Item 102

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10th month, 8th 1870. Several half-breed Indians have been cheated out of their allotted lands by inducing them to sign papers they did not understand, before they reached legal age. If their ages are recorded in Washington, the writer needs a copy of their names and ages.

Page 86

Item 103

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10th month, 22nd 1870. Enclosing certified vouchers to purchase two yokes of work cattle for the Sacs and Foxes. The money is to be taken from that received from the Burlington and Southwest Railroad for right-of-way timber.

Page 87

Item 104

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10th month, 25th 1870. Enclosing triplicate signed receipts. May the writer now buy much needed stoves, etc., as mentioned in his estimate?

Page 88

Item 105

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10th month, 26th 1870. In response to the superintendent’s inquiry as to the length of time he was absent on furlough, the writer states that he left 9th month 13th and returned 9th month 28th 1870.

Page 89

Item 106

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 10/31/1870. Enclosing a contract for right-of-way through part of the Iowa reserve with the Atchison and Nebraska Railroads. The company has deposited $101.50 for the land at $7.50 per acre. The writer believes their price is adequate.

Page 90

Item 107

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 14th 1870. Enclosing Resolutions signed by the Iowa chiefs regarding payment of doctor and coffin bills.

Page 90

Item 108

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 17th 1870. Enclosing the agency estimates for the fourth quarter, 1870, at the request of the Iowas and the Sac and Foxes, it includes $300 to buy materials for the carpenter and blacksmith shops from the Sac and Fox funds.

Page 91

Item 109

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11/23/1870. Enclosing a check for $13.00 from the Omaha Mining Company for coal taken from the mines. The writer would like to know the amount the company has paid in order that he can keep an account of what it is mining.

Page 92

Item 110

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 26th 1870. Enclosing a letter from the Richardson County Clerk. The writer believes “they” want the right-of-way and stone free of charge and wants instructions.

Page 93

Item 111

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 29th 1870. Enclosing vouchers to purchase wagon, plows, etc., from J. S. Springle, White Cloud, Kansas for the Sacs and Foxes. It is paid from funds received from the Burlington and Southwestern Railroad Company.

Page 94

Item 112

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 11th month, 30th 1870. Enclosing vouchers to purchase one horse for the Iowas from funds reserved to build a bridge across the Great Nemaha River.

Page 95

Item 113

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month, 6th 1870. Enclosing signed vouchers for needed funds in the amount of $1860.

Page 96

Item 114

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month, 10th 1870. Enclosing vouchers to purchase plows, harness, etc., for the Iowas (the money to be taken from the bridge fund).

Page 97

Item 115

Name of writer covered, almost undoubtedly Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12th month 14th 1870. The agency fur trader was arrested for selling goods without a license without paying the sales tax. He went to Falls City, where payment of $10 for tax, $5 for selling tobacco, and the costs which amounted to $40. What authority did they have to demand and collect these fees? The writer is aware only of a license being required.

Page 98

Item 116

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12/17/1870. The writer wishes to go to Philadelphia and requests leave of absence from the reservation approximately early January 1871.

Page 99

Item 117

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12/24/1870. The writer sent a form of Agreement and Bond to the President of the Atchison and Nebraska Railroad Company. He said he would have them processed at once. The writer also requested that the surveys be made, but he’s received no reply. He has also sent the contents of a letter from the Commissioner to the Clerk of Richardson County, but has not seen him since that time.

Page 100

Item 118

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 12/26/1870. Enclosing an estimate for blanks needed at the Great Nemaha Agency.

Page 100

Item 119

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 01/21/1871. The writer left the agency 12 month 29th 1870, and returned 1st month 19th 1871. “Found all well and doing right.”

Page 101

Item 120

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney. 01/21/1871. This is a response to a circular dated 12th month 29th 1870. The buildings are sufficient for use of the agent, the house needs some repairs. The council house and school house are sufficient for the tribe and in good condition. There is a great need for an industrial home for orphans and other children where they could acquire habits of civilization. There are a building and land near the schoolhouse which could be used for this, but the building would need to be enlarged, repaired, and furnished. The Indians want the industrial home and the writer recommends it.

Page 102

Item 121

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 1st month, 22nd 1871. Enclosing statement of the Richardson County Clerk regarding the bridge and road across the Great Nemaha River and reservation.

Page 103

Item 122

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 02/07/71. With regard to withholding of annuities of two Sac and Fox half breed girls 1864-1869 when they were away from the reservation attending a mission school. The chiefs believed the annuities should not have been withheld and wanted them paid, not from the tribal annuities but from uninvested funds in Washington. The agent concurs. The office was so diverted of all documents when he came that the number in the tribe nor how much they should have received.

Page 104

Item 123

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney 02/08/1871. Enclosing license and band for Mordecai Y. Bartram, to replace Henry Jones as trader for the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes of Missouri. Jones wished to resign as soon as Bartram receives his license.

Page 104

Item 124

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, (date covered) Enclosing estimates for the first quarter of 1871. The writer asks permission to use $140 remaining as the fund to buy teams, tools, and implements for the Iowas.

Page 105

Item 125

Thomas Lightfoot to an unidentified recipient, probably S. M. Janney, n.d. A creditor has requested payment from the Iowa annuity after telling them he would ask for it from uninvested funds. The man said the records had been changed. The Indians are not willing to pay it from their annuity.

Page 106

Item 126

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 02/21/71 The writer has held an open council with nearly all the tribe. They stated that when they signed the paper authorizing payment to the creditor, it was not to be taken from their annuities, but from uninvested funds in Washington. The paper had been changed. They did not want the money taken from their annuities. The agent agreed with them.

Page 106

Item 127

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 02/09/71. One of the men to whom the writer sold wood has been arrested for hauling wood off the Sac and Fox reserve. This needs immediate attention. Those to whom he sold wood in good faith should not be put to trouble.

Page 107

Item 128

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 02/20/71. The writer sent an estimate for blanks, but was not aware that he needed Property Returns also. Shall he send an estimate for them or can the superintendent send him enough for one quarterly report?

Page 108

Item 129

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 02/21/71. The Iowa tribe are ready to have their land sectionalized and want it done at once to stop any possibility of having their lands taken from them. They have held a council and want to meet the Great Father (the President). They want superintendent Janney to meet them in White Cloud immediately and will wait for him there.

Page 109

Item 130

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/31/71. The writer acknowledges receipt of an order he has requested from a General regarding drinking. It has had a good effect on the Iowa tribe. Two of them had engaged in a fight and one was badly injured. It appeared that it would be necessary to confine the other one; but when he learned of the order he relented and “begged to be excused.”

Page 110

Item 131

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/31/71. The writer requests permission to “put the assistant carpenter to work” in accord with a resolution passed by the Iowa tribe when the superintendent had visited the reservation. If the Department would object to this, the writer wishes to pursue another course. For what amount should the school teacher sign a voucher? The agent thought it was fixed until he received some “exceptions” from the Department.

Page 111

Item 132

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/29/71. The writer acknowledges receipt of a letter from the superintendent and a copy of one from the Commissioner regarding increasing the salary of a teacher at the Iowa school. The agent wishes to conduct business exactly in compliance with the regulations and the Department (of the Interior) and instructions. He thought he was complying when he prepared his estimate for the fourth quarter of 1870. The teacher’s duties were much increased by teaching the girls to sew, cut and fit their clothing after school hours. When the increased to $800 yearly was allowed and the money deposited to the writer’s account, he thought his action was satisfactory, but wishes to be informed of it if he should have pursued a different course of action. The teacher has only one assistant, an Indian woman who serves as interpreter and assists with the small children.

Page 112

Item 133

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/17/71. The writer encloses a letter from Allen Thacker requesting permission to build a dam across the Great Nemaha River and to dig clay, gravel, and rock from the bank of it on the Sac and Fox reserve. But Thacker should pay for the rock instead of taking it free of charge as he proposes to do.

Page 113

Item 134

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/8/71. The Indians want an industrial home for the orphans and other children of the Iowa tribe. There are no available funds to build one and the writer, in compliance with Janney’s suggestion, asks permission to use funds appropriated for educational and other purposes by Article 9 of a Treaty of 1854, to repair a vacant house for occupation by a family and board as many children at $100 monthly as the accruing money will fund. In the event this is approved, the house will be occupied by William Margrave and his wife. The children will attend the established school. A council has been held with the Indians, who would like to open the home the first of April, 1871. The youngest chief, “Darian,” has died, leaving written instructions “that he wished Mary B. Lightfoot to have charge of his two children, Edward and Mary Darian, to teach them English, educate and do with them as she thinks best.” The mother and other relatives were agreeable. The writer requests $100 each for their board, and the same amount for Henry Jones, an orphan boy who was staying with the teacher. He was “sick and terribly neglected when he was taken from his wretched home.” The writer encloses an estimate and needs to know the exact amounts due at same intervals in order to know how many children can be admitted.

Page 114

Item 135

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 03/03/71. Enclosing signed vouchers for funds needed for the first quarter 1871.

Page 114

Item 136

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/26/71. Enclosing signed receipts and estimates to start (a) home in the amount of $530.

Page 115

Item 137

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/25/71. Enclosing estimates for funds and blanks for the second quarter of 1871.

Page 116

Item 138

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/22/71. The writer is sending agency returns for the quarter ending 3rd month 31st 1871. The Iowa Indians have sown wheat and oats and are preparing to plant corn and potatoes. More ground will be seeded this year then in the past. The Sacs and Foxes want to go to Washington and sell their lands in order to move to Indian Territory.

Page 117

Item 139

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/19/1871. An agreement and band have been signed giving the Atchison and Nebraska Railroad a right-of-way through the Iowa reserve in the state of Nebraska “from the state line up.” When the writer learned that the company was ready to start the work, he notified them that it was illegal to continue until the agreement was approved by the Department. They replied that they would deposit the money immediately ($15.00 per acre).

Page 118

Item 140

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/15/71. A circular dated March 31, 1871 from the Department states that no more than fifty percent of the amount due is to be paid on materials for building or supplies for forts until the accounts have been examined. Does this apply to repairs of Agency buildings and houses?

Page 119

Item 141

A statement signed at a council 4th 7th 1871, requesting that sufficient funds be taken from tribal funds to pay Samuel White Cloud, or another tribal member as apprentice or assistant carpenter until someone from the tribe can be employed. The present annual salary is $300.

Page 120

Item 142

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/07/71. Enclosing a request from the Iowa chiefs that an Indian Apprentice or assistant carpenter be employed and paid from tribal funds.

Page 121

Item 143

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 04/04/71. More than twenty of the Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi have been on the Sac and Fox of Missouri reserve six months or more trying to be added to the roll in order to draw money with the Missouri band. Some of the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri are willing, but many of them are not. The visitors have been “a drunken worthless set of Indians.” The writer recommends that they be returned to their own tribe and asks for instructions.

Page 122

Item 144

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 05/27/71. Enclosing signed vouchers for $175 for assistance in operation an industrial home at the agency.

Page 122

Item 145

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 05/23/71. The writer has employed Julia Rubeti, an Indian girl, at an annual salary of $200, as seamstress at the industrial home expected to open 06/01/71. He hopes the Department will approve the appointment.

Page 123

Item 146

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 05/16/1871. Enclosing a check for $11.25 received from Omaha Coal mining Company for royalty on 1,128 bushels of coal, up to 3rd month 31st 1871. Also sending resolutions passed by the Iowa chiefs for funds received from Atchison and Nebraska Railroad Company for a right-of-way.

Page 124

Item 147

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 06/28/71. The Indians much need implements and other supplies for work, and ask daily why an answer has not been received for an estimate for funds received from the Atchison and Nebraska Railroad. They also need $100 for provisions.

Page 125

Item 148

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 06/03/71. The Iowa Indians wish their Great Father at Washington to allocate their lands. They cannot afford to pay for it from their annuities. The head chief says the Great Father promised to have their land surveyed when they wished it to be done. A practical surveyor thought it would cost from $600-$800. The writer wishes it could be done. In a Commissioner’s letter it is stated that their lands include 11,500 acres. The writer understood that it was 16,000.

Page 126

Item 149

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 06/17/71. Enclosing abstract of employees at the agency, which the acting Commissioner desires. William A. Margrave and his wife now have charge of the industrial home. They receive $100 annually for each child’s board, and now have 12 children in the home.

Page 127

Item 150

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 07/13/71. Enclosing signed receipts amounting to $692.60. The Indians are not pleased that the Secretary of the Interior invested $101.62 of their funds. They want houses built and implements. They want payment of their annuity early in the ninth month.

Page 128

Item 151

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 07/20/71. Sending returns for the second quarter of 1871. The health of the Sacs and Foxes is very good. The Iowas are getting along well with their farming, and some are enlarging their farms. Their industrial or orphan home was started 6 month 1st, last.

Page 129

Item 152

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 08/09/71. Enclosing for approval vouchers to purchase items for the Iowa tribe according to instructions received from Janney, which the writer would like to have returned as soon as possible.

Page 130

Item 153

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 08/09/71. The writer has mailed certified vouchers to purchase one wagon and two sets of harness for the Sacs and Foxes, the money to be taken form that received from Burlington and Southwest Railroad Company. Also sent vouchers for harness, etc. for the Iowa tribe, the money to be taken form the Bridge fund.

Page 131

Item 154

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 08/12/71. Enclosing estimates for funds required at the Great Nemaha Agency for the third quarter 1871.

Page 132

Item 155

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 8th month, 21st 1871. A 3 page letter constituting the writer’s third annual report. Throughout the past year the health and sanitary condition of the Indians has gradually improved, with exception from epidemics and contagious diseases. The Iowas. They are much interested in agriculture and building houses. Four new houses have been built and others repaired. They raised corn, potatoes, and beans; but chinch bugs ruined their wheat crop. They care for their stock and have about 75 horses and ponies, and 60 head of cattle, half of which are work oxen. A member of the Society of Friends has advanced money to buy the milk cows and waited two years for reimbursement. A majority of the families raise poultry and hogs. Establishment of the industrial home for orphans has greatly advanced the educational interests of the tribe. The number of children is limited to fourteen by shortage of funds. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri. These people are located on a 16,000 acre reservation. Their principal settlement is six miles from the agency building. There are no government employees among them and their progress toward civilization has been slower than that of the Iowas. They have broken some prairie sod and planted crops. They do not have schools, and live in tents and bark houses. They are considering two options: to sell part of their land and use the money for a school, build houses, and improve the land ; or sell all the reservation and join the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. They are related by blood and marriage and speak the same language. But they will never make an agreement or sign papers anywhere but in Washington. The writer recommends that they be allowed to go to Washington, and if their land is sold, that it be done at the reservation for cash to the highest bidder, in half, quarter, or whole sections. The Society of Friends has supplied the Indians with clothing, proper food, medical care, seeds, fruit trees, vines, etc. The trading house at the agency has been advantageous to the Indians.

Page 134

Item 156

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 9th month, 4th 1871. Sending for approval vouchers to purchase iron, etc., from H. W. Shaw.

Page 135

Item 157

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 09/09/71. The writer has received a letter dated 09/09/71 with a voucher for $127.75 to William Wyeth and Company and one for $127.00 to E. Dutton. The articles from both were purchased with certified vouchers. The agent has not had the money in his possession. Please see that the mistake is corrected.

Page 136

Item 158

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 09/13/71. Enclosing for approval vouchers payable to E. Dutton.

Page 136

Item 159

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 09/21/71. Enclosing the teacher’s report of the school at the agency.

Page 137

Item 160

Thomas Lightfoot to S. M. Janney, 09/21/71. Enclosing Petition of the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes of Missouri for money received from sale of the “trust land.” They wish to know how much money was received from the sale.

Page 138

Item 161

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, superintendent of Indian affairs, 10/24/71. The vouchers sent for payment to E. Dutton have not been returned. Only 50% has been paid, and the parties want the remainder. The writer cannot finish his quarterly returns without them.

Page 139

Item 162

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/25/1871. Enclosing vouchers to John R. Dowty for approval.

Page 139

Item 163

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/25/71. Submitting for approval vouchers to C. W. Noyes, John Sperry, and Palmer D. Orton.

Page 140

Item 164

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/13/71. Enclosing estimates for funds for the fourth quarter of 1871.

Page 140

Item 165

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/02/1871. Enclosing the signed vouchers for the fourth quarter 1871.

Page 141

Item 166

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/08/1871. Enclosing two petitions from the Iowa Indians, one for investment of funds received from trust lands, the other for payment of doctor and coffin bills.

Page 142

Item 167

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/08/71. Enclosing vouchers for books, etc., and clothing for the Iowa Indian school. Enclosing two for material for the Iowa blacksmith, also one for a stove and fixtures for the orphan or industrial school (the latter for approval).

Page 143

Item 168

Unsigned letter, probably from Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/09/71. Four Iowa chiefs are doing all they can to civilize the tribe. It would be advantageous to them to have medals as marks of merit. They are na-ga-ra-sh, ya-hee, ma-hee, and ki-he-ga.

Page 144

Item 169

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/29/71. Enclosing license and hand of the trader for the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes for renewal.

Page 145

Item 170

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/29/71. In view of prospects that the Sacs and Foxes will sell their reservation, the William A. Margraves family, half-breeds, wish to withdraw from the tribe provided they can have a portion of the land allocated to them and become citizens. What is the course to be taken? Others have made the same request.

Page 146

Item 171

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 1st month 11 1872. The writer has appointed Jane Rich to replace Julia Rubeti, resigned, as seamstress at the industrial or orphans’ home at a salary of $200 yearly.

Page 147

Item 172

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/01/72. The writer cites a circular from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the effect that a list of articles needed for the Indians or agency must be reported to the Bureau with the probable cost of them at the agency. Does this apply to all funds already on hand, with the uses of them cited? Please reply soon as the writer has funds on hand to buy needed articles.

Page 148

Item 173

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/17/72. Enclosing estimate blanks needed at the agency, first and second quarters of 1872.

Page 149

Item 174

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/22/72. The writer has sent returns for the fourth quarter of 1871. A voucher to William A. Margrove is included.

Page 150

Item 175

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/27/72. Enclosing petitions signed by Margaret Margrave (one of them in behalf of her child) and Julia M. Rubeti. If the Sacs and Foxes sell their land, it is very important that they be granted their share of tribal property.

Page 151

Item 176

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/29/72. Enclosing a petition of the chiefs, head men, and members of the Iowa tribe regarding sectionalizing their lands. They are very anxious that it be done.

Page 152

Item 177

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/05/72. Enclosing vouchers for approval in favor of C. W. Noyes, M. B. Bartram, John Sperry, John R. Dawty, and Sophia Barabe.

Page 152

Item 178

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/29/72. Enclosing for approval vouchers in favor of W. Y. Stone for items bought for Iowa Industrial School children.

Page 153

Item 179

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/11/72. The Indians are much disappointed by a letter from the superintendent and enclosed copy of one from the Commissioner. They want the money received for their trust lands to buy teams, and implements, and build houses. They want their land sectionalized. The writer wishes to meet with the superintendent at White Cloud within the current week in hopes that some arrangements can be made with friends in the East.

Page 154

Item 180

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/02/72. D. R. Halt came to the agency in the absence of the agency and induced 27 or 28 of the Indians to sign a paper claimed to be a bill for $2,900 some of them owed to him. The writer does not know where the money to pay the bill is to come from, nor where it is cited on the paper, but he and all the Indians are opposed to payment of it from their annuity. It was contracted entirely “out side and away from the reservation during the past year.” The writer believes that transactions should be done through the proper channel. He understands that the interpreter has someone to take it to Washington.

Page 155

Item 181

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/06/72. The writer requests leave of absence from the reservation for two to three weeks from approximately March 20, 1872. He wishes to go East on some personal business. All is quiet at the reservation. The Indians wish to receive payment soon after his return.

Page 156

Item 182

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/20/72. In reply to a letter from the superintendent, the writer states that there is one school for the Iowa tribe with two female teachers. There are seventy students on the roll. Average attendance is forty. Reading, writing, arithmetic, spelling, and geography are taught. There is a good schoolhouse but no apparatus or library, some of the pupils return to their parents at night. Others stay at the orphan or industrial home, which started 6th month 1st 1871. The school provides good influence on the tribe, and they are much pleased with it.

Page 157

Item 183

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/13/72. Enclosing an estimate for funds needed at the agency for the first quarter of 1872.

Page 158

Item 184

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/01/72. At a council with the Indians 2 month 8th, they requested that doctor and coffin bills be paid from their annuity before division of it among the tribe. The writer sent two copies of the request to the superintendent, who should let the writer know if he did not receive it.

Page 159

Item 185

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/13/72. White’s request for the amount needed for the second quarter of 1872 has been received. The writer sends some estimates and states that at least $4,000 will be needed.

The page numbers begin again at page 185

Item 186

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/20/72. The writer sends blank, unsigned vouchers for the first quarter of 1872, and asks that the money be deposited to his account.

Page 186

Item 187

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/01/72. The writer encloses a report for March 1872 of the Iowas and the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri. The Iowas have been cutting rails to fence their lands, some of them need teams and farm implements. Their school is well attended. The Sacs and Foxes do not have a school and want to sell their land and move. If their reservation is sold, the writer thinks part of the proceeds should be used for education and other benefits instead of paid to them as an annuity.

Page 187

Item 188

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/08/72. The writer encloses quarterly returns with a report for March 1872.

Page 187

Item 189

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/09/72. The writer encloses signed vouchers. He left the reserve March 20, 1872, and returned April 8. When will the superintendent come to make payments. The writer does not have enough blanks to prepare the payrolls.

Page 188

Item 189

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/18/72. The writer urges payment of the Indians’ semi-annual annuity. They have spent nearly or all the amount they would receive and are very uneasy.

Page 188

Item 190

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/10/72. As required by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the writer sends certificates for property he has used and exhausted during the fourth quarter of 1871.

Page 189

Item 191

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/03/72. The writer encloses a request of the Iowa chiefs regarding payment of their doctor and coffin bills.

Page 189

Item 192

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/09/72. Enclosing an estimate for agency funds, second quarter 1872.

Page 190

Item 193

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/01/72. The writer encloses a monthly report for the agency. The health of the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes is good. They are quiet and orderly. Some are enlarging their farms and preparing for spring crops. Several have logs to build houses but no money to finish them except a small donation from a friend in Philadelphia. The Indians, especially the Iowas, need more farm implements. The school and the industrial (orphans’) home are doing well.

Page 190

Item 194

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/13/72. The writer encloses some vouchers for approval.

Page 191

Item 195

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/01/72. The Indians are harvesting their crops. The Iowa school and the orphans’ home are functioning satisfactorily. Health of the Indians is good. They are much in need of implements, harness, and other items for farming.

Page 192

Item 196

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/21/72. The writer returns vouchers for agency funds, second quarter of 1872.

Page 192-93

Item 197

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/08/72. At a recent council, the Iowa chiefs and headmen urged that the east, and part or all of the south lines of their reserve be surveyed. It appears that a neighbor has fenced in numerous acres of Indian lands. He has refused to move the fence. If he is not induced to move, it will set a bad precedent for others to infringe on Indian lands. The two lines are about 12 to 15 miles long. A good practical surveyor at White Cloud, Kansas, might be induced to perform the work.

Page 193-194

Item 198

A statement signed by Sac and Fox chiefs and headmen, and by George Gomess, of a council. An act to authorize sale of their land was read and explained. They want all their reservation in Kansas and Nebraska sold. They desire that Thomas Lightfoot act as one of their commissioners. The chiefs wish to go to Washington to confer with the President and Secretary of the Interior to reserve funds for improving their new lands and to pay the expenses of their trip. Certified by Lightfoot and two other witnesses.

Page 194

Item 199

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/08/1872. The writer encloses a copy of the proceeding of council with the Sacs and Foxes.

Page 195-96

Item 200

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/15/72. The Iowa chiefs and headmen request that sufficient money be taken from their annuity to buy a new mowing machine and that it be sent soon. Certified by Kirwun Murray and Thomas Lightfoot. An estimate for $150 to buy the mowing machine is included.

Page 196

Item 201

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/15/72. The writer encloses the chiefs’ request for funds to buy a mowing machine.

Page 196

Item 202

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/26/72. The writer encloses a report of employees at the agency, “separate from anything else as requested.”

Page 197

Item 203

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/25/72. The writer encloses agency returns for the second quarter of 1872. The Sac and Fox Indians of Missouri are drinking some whiskey. The Iowas wish to stay where they are and have their land sectionalized.

Page 197

Item 204

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/30/72. There are sixteen half-breed patents for land which has been in the writers’ property return since he assumed his duties or agent. There is one for a half-breed Sioux which he called for, saying he was 21 years old, and wanted his patent. What courses shall the writer take?

Page 198

Item 205

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/30/72. The writer encloses estimates for agency funds, third quarter 1872.

Page 198

Item 206

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/05/72. The writer encloses two vouchers for approval, one for $30 and the other for $125.

Page 199

Item 207

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/16/72. Enclosing vouchers signed by the writer for agency funds for the third quarter of 1872.

Page 199

Item 208

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/26/72. Enclosing corrected certificates of issue from the school teacher, carpenter, and blacksmith for the fourth quarter of 1871.

Page 200

Item 209

A report of Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/2/1872. The Iowas: They have been gradually improving since the writers’ last report and have fenced and broken more land. They desire to live in houses. There are less sickness and fewer deaths among the children since they are cooking their food on stoves. They greatly need wagons and farming implements. The superintendent now has funds to purchase these and other necessities. They want their reservation sectionalized and allotted in severalty. They take good care of their livestock. They are keeping their school open. The industrial home has 16 children in its care, and is very popular. The Iowa tribe members 225. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri: This tribe is unsettled. The members of it want to sell their reservation and move to Indian Territory. They own 16,000 acres. It is very important that the proceeds from this land be appropriated. The chiefs want to go to Washington to arrange for distribution of funds received from the sale. The writer believes it is necessary that they be allowed to go in order that a large portion of the money be reserved for education. One family wishes to become citizens and withdraw from the tribe. The writer approves of it. This tribe has no employees or schools, no funds allocated for them, and the chiefs do not want any of the annuity used for them.

Page 201

Item 210

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/06/72. The writer encloses his yearly report with that of the teachers, also the statistics of farming and education.

Page 201

Item 211

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/09/72. Enclosing for approval a voucher payable to John Dowty.

Page 201

Item 212

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/11/72. Enclosing request of the Iowa chiefs for payment of doctor and coffin bills from their annuity.

Page 202

Item 213

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/16/72. Enclosing corrected vouchers from Lightfoot, W. Stone, and C. Noyes for the first and second quarters of 1872.

Page 202

Item 214

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/21/72. Enclosing a request from the Sac and Fox chiefs for funds to pay their expenses to Washington. The writer wants instructions as to when to take them and how many may go.

Page 203

Item 215

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/01/72. The writer has received, signed and returned official blanks.

Page 203

Item 216

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/27/72. Enclosing request of the Iowa chiefs for funds.

Page 203

Item 217

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/07/72. Enclosing signed vouchers in triplicate for $2,668.53, also a bill for a mowing machine.

Page 204

Item 218

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/09/72. Enclosing signed vouchers in triplicate for vouchers amounting to $800 for expenses of a delegation of Indians to and from Washington, D. C. The recipient states in a previous letter that the proper time would be “after the secretary of the Interior has decided what was received for their lands to be sold.” The weather would likely be very cold by then. The writer believes they would act intelligently in presenting their plans to build houses, buy implements, and use the remainder for education. He would prefer to take them before cold weather.

Page 204

Item 219

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/17/72. Enclosing an estimate for blanks needed for the fourth quarter of 1872 and the first one of 1873.

Page 205

Item 220

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/22/72. Enclosing vouchers in favor of five persons or businesses for approval. “...the exigencies of the case demand the purchase of the articles in open market.”

Page 205

Item 221

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/25/72. The writer is sending his returns for the third quarter of 1872 and a receipt for a half-breed patent.

Page 205

Item 222

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/30/72. The writer plans to leave with the Sac and Fox chiefs and interpreter for Washington approximately November 11 or 12 and will return as soon as he conveniently can.

Page 206

Item 223

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/02/72. In his monthly report, the writer states that the Iowas are doing well and have good crops of garden produce. They have completed eight new houses and are eager to finish many of them. The Sacs and Foxes are unsettled with regard to moving. Both tribes are in good health.

Page 206

Item 224

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/04/72. Enclosing estimates for agency funds for the fourth quarter of 1872.

Page 207

Item 225

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/06/72. Enclosing vouchers in favor of five persons.

Page 207

Item 226

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/30/72. Enclosing signed vouchers in triplicate for the fourth quarter of 1872.

Page 208

Item 227

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 11/30/72. The writer has returned with the Sac and Fox delegation after 19 days in Washington, D. C., and Philadelphia. The Sacs and Foxes wish to buy 30 sections of land from the Osages. The writer has requested permission to arrange a meeting with chiefs of this tribe and of the Osages at superintendent (Enoch) Hoag’s office in Lawrence, Kansas instead of going to Indian Territory. Is the writer at liberty to use the money left after paying the expenses of the trip to Washington for other traveling expenses of the tribe? A copy of the request made to the Commissioner in Washington, D.C., is enclosed.

Page 209

Item 228

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/05/72. Enclosing for approval vouchers for purchase of carpeting bought for the agency office.

Page 209

Item 229

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/11/72. The trader’s license will expire the first of the second month, and he expects to leave for the East. The writer would like to pay him the first week of the second month. The writer thinks the Philadelphia friends would like for him to collect his bills before leaving. What does the superintendent think, and can he pay the Indians by that time? They were paid early in the fall and many of them are “broke.”

Page 210

Item 230

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/21/72. The writer has received an inquiry regarding the cost of enlarging the Industrial Orphans’ home. There is need to have 30 acres of land broken and fenced at a cost of $240 in time to plant spring crops. The writer had mentioned the breaking and fencing to Friends in Philadelphia, who declined to pay this small amount.

Page 211

Item 231

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 12/28/72. White has suggested a trip to Lawrence, Kansas, after the first week in the second month to arrange for a new home for the Sacs and Foxes. The writer approves of the time and requests the superintendents’ commentary and assistance.

Page 211

Item 232

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White , 12/28/72. The writer has appointed Julia McCloskey, a half-breed, as assistant school teacher for the Iowa Indian school to replace Mary Childs, resigned.

Page 212

Item 233

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/06/72 (73?). Enclosing the license and band of M. Z. Bartram as trader for the Iowas and Sacs and Foxes beginning 2nd month 1873 when his former license will expire. He has added the name of L. G. Lightfoot as clerk.

Page 212

Item 234

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/18/73. In response to White’s inquiry, Mary Childs terminated her services as assistant teacher the 31st of the 12th month 1872.

Page 213

Item 235

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/20/73. Enclosing returns for the fourth quarter of 1872. Affairs at the agency are satisfactory, especially with the Iowas, who wish to improve their situation. Several houses have been built for them and others will be added in the spring.

Page 213

Item 236

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 01/23/73. Enclosing vouchers in favor of seven persons.

Page 214

Item 237

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/01/73. Has Agent Gibson written as to whether the Osage chiefs or tribe were willing to sell to the Sacs and Foxes before he scheduled the meeting? It seems to the writer that they are “going on uncertainty.” Superintendent Hoag doubts that they will be able to purchase from the Osages. The money should not be spent to no purpose.

Page 214

Item 238

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/04/73. Enclosing estimates for the first quarter of 1873 together with $1,040 to enlarge the orphans’ home. The writer thinks approximately $800 will be required to build an 18 by 33 two-story addition. The remaining $240 will be needed to fence and break ground for benefit of the home.

Page 215

Item 239

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/18/73. If it is necessary for the writer to submit new bands when his commission expires, please advise him early enough that it can be done while Congress is in session (if it must go before that body). If it is necessary for friends to forward my name for renomination, please write to them.

Page 215

Item 240

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/22/73. Enclosing request of the Iowa chiefs for payment of doctor and coffin bills.

Page 216

Item 241

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 02/27/73. Enclosing for approval vouchers in favor of five persons.

Page 216

Item 242

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/01/73. Enclosing five signed vouchers in triplicate amounting to $1,875 for the first quarter of 1873.

Page 217

Item 243

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/01/73. Enclosing an account of bank funds on hand for use of the agency 03/01/73, as requested.

Page 217

Item 244

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/01/73. In his monthly report the writer states that the tribes are in as good health as can be expected as the season of the year. The Iowas are satisfied with their home, improving and wish to extend their farming. The Sacs and Foxes are preparing to go to Indian Territory in search of a new home.

Page 218

Item 245

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/08/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank for use of the agency the week ending 3rd month 8th 1873.

Page 218

Item 246

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/15/73. Enclosing vouchers for $1,040 in triplicate for improvement of the industrial home for Iowa children. May the writer employ a second carpenter a few days while the present one is working on home building?

Page 219

Item 247

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/15/73. As instructed the writer encloses an account of bank funds available for use of the agency at the week ending 03/15/73.

Page 219

Item 248

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/22/73. Enclosing statement of public funds on hand at the week ending 03/22/1873.

Page 219

Item 249

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 03/29/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand the week ending 3rd month 29th 1873.

Page 220

Item 250

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/01/73. The writer has appointed Mary Childs as assistant teacher for the Iowa school effective 1st of 4th month 1873, at a salary of $200 per annum, replacing Julia McClaskey, retired.

Page 220

Item 251

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/01/73. As instructed, the writer encloses report of the agency employees.

Page 221

Item 252

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/05/73. Enclosing an estimate for blanks for agency use for the second and third quarters of 1873.

Page 221

Item 253

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/05/73. The writer expects to leave the agency approximately 04/09/73 with the Sac and Fox chiefs and interpreter for the Indian Territory to find a new home for the tribe.

Page 221

Item 254

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/05/73. Enclosing a statement of funds on hand and in the bank at the close of the week ending 4th month 5th 1873 for use at the agency.

Page 222

Item 255

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/07/73. The writer has received a summons to appear before the United States court at Topeka on some liquor cases, which he supposes will delay the trip to Indian Territory. Will it not be right to answer the summons? If the bill to sell that part of the Sac and Fox agency lying in Kansas has passed, why the delay in appointing the appraisers of it? If it has not, it does not appear necessary to make the visit at present.

Page 222

Item 256

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/10/73. The writer has mailed his returns for the first quarter of 1873, the addition to the “Industrial home building” has begun. Some of the Iowas are cutting and hauling rails to fence more ground. They still wish to improve their situation by building five or six more new houses.

Page 223

Item 257

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/14/73. Enclosing a statement of funds on hand April 12, 1873.

Page 223

Item 258

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/14/73. Enclosing an estimate for funds needed for the agency, second quarter 1873.

Page 224

Item 259

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/17/73. Responding to the recipient’s inquiry, the writer states that there is one day school at the agency with sixty students. Average attendance the past winter was 35. Reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, and geography are taught. The students are progressing well. Attendance at the Sabbath school ranges from 45 to 75. There is one adult Bible class, three classes for children, recitation, and singing.

Page 224

Item 260

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/28/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds April 19, 1873.

Page 225

Item 261

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/19/73. The writer has returned from court in Topeka, where three men charged with liquor to Indians plead guilty and were fined $5.00 and costs. The writer plans to accompany the Sac and Fox chiefs to Indian Territory the following week.

Page 225

Item 262

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/25/73. The writer encloses license and bond of Albert L. Green to trade with the Iowas, Sacs and Foxes one year. He will serve as clerk for the present trader until his license is approved and returned.

Page 226

Item 263

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/28/73. Enclosing statement of funds in the bank and on hand April 26, 1873.

Page 226

Item 264

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 04/28/73. Enclosing vouchers of three creditors for approval.

Page 226

Item 265

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 5th month 12th 1873. Enclosing statement of funds in the bank and on hand May 10, 1873.

Page 226

Item 266

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/12/73. The writer has accompanied the chiefs and interpreter of the Sac and Foxes of Missouri to Indian Territory. The Osages concluded that they needed all their land and declined to sell any of it. The chiefs refused to visit the Sacs and Foxes of the Mississippi from whom they do not wish to buy land.

Page 227

Item 267

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/12/73. Enclosing signed vouchers in triplicate for agency funds, second quarter 1873.

Page 228

Item 268

An unsigned letter (in Lightfoot’s handwriting) to Barclay White, 05/16/73. Enclosing for approval vouchers for payment to four persons or businesses.

Page 228

Item 269

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/17/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand 5th month 17th, 1873.

Page 228

Item 270

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/24/1873. Enclosing statement of funds in the bank and on hand 5th month, 24th 1873.

Page 229

Item 271

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/31/73. The writer requests that the United States marshal could not arrest three Indians. The United States commissioner in Kansas has prepared papers for the arrest. The writer has told the commissioner that he wants them incarcerated without trial after making threats. He will inform the recipient when the arrests are made.

Page 229

Item 272

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/31/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand 5th month, 31st 1873.

Page 230

Item 273

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 05/31/73. Almost a year ago the writer informed the recipient that Harry H. Newling had fenced in a part of the Iowa lands and recommended a survey of the lands. It was done and confirmed that Newling was infringing on Indian property. He has ignored the writer’s notice to move the fence. The Department should take action to have it moved. Otherwise, it will be a bad precedent.

Page 230

Item 274

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/04/73. In reply to Barclay’s inquiry, probably about 400 three-cent stamps will be needed for the third and fourth quarters of 1873.

Page 231

Item 275

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/05/73. Enclosing vouchers from two businesses for approval.

Page 231

Item 276

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/07/73. Enclosing statement of funds in the bank and on hand for use of the agency 6th month 7th 1873.

Page 231

Item 277

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/14/73. Enclosing statement of funds in the band and on hand for agency use 6th month 14th 1873.

Page 232

Item 278

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/24/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand for the agency 6th month 21st 1873.

Page 232

Item 279

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 06/24/73. In reply to Barclay’s letter with copy of another, the lumber in question was of the best quality for its use available at Hobart, Nebraska. The writer went to Atchison, Kansas before the purchase but found that the price of it there plus freight would have exceeded the price paid for it.

Page 232

Item 280

Thomas Lightfoot to U. S. Grant, President of the United States, 6th month 26th 1873. The writer resigns as United States Indian agent for the Great Nemaha Agency, Nebraska effective October 1, 1873.

Page 233

Item 281

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 6th month 28th 1873. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand 6th month 28th 1873.

Page 234

Item 282

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/02/73. Enclosing report of agency employees for the second quarter of 1873.

Page 235

Item 283

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/05/73. Enclosing a copy of questions from the Commissioner regarding a physician and medication. The writer has answered those relevant to the agency, but does not have a doctor.

Page 235

Item 284

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/05/73. Enclosing statement of funds in bank and on hand for the agency 7th month 5th 1873.

Page 236

Item 285

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/12/73. Regarding the commissioner’s comments as to the writer’s travel expenses for the third and fourth quarters 1872, he has accounted for them in the same manner as in the third and fourth quarters of 1872. Two small projects at the agency were paid for from the writers’ contingency fund. He did not know vouchers were necessary for meals at hotels in addition to lodging. This was prior to issuance of a circular from Washington dated June 6. The writer is enclosing receipts for a trip to Washington and Philadelphia.

Page 237

Item 286

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/04/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 7th month 12th 1873.

Page 237

Item 287

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/21/73. The writer is mailing his returns for the second quarter 1873.

Page 238

Item 288

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/21/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 7th month 19th 1873.

Page 238

Item 289

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/19/73. The writer has been “reappointed by the President to be agent for the Indians at the Great Nemaha Agency. He does not wish to accept it and has sent his resignation.

Page 239

Item 290

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 7th month 21st 1873. Enclosing estimate for agency funds for the third quarter of 1873.

Page 239

Item 291

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/28/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 7th month 26th 1873.

Page 240

Item 292

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 07/28/73. Enclosing vouchers for payment to four recipients for approval.

Page 240

Item 293

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/01/73. Agency affairs for the past month have been quite satisfactory. The Industrial Home for the Iowas is being plastered. It will be very beneficial to the children. The blacksmith and some Indians are assisting the carpenter in building houses. The Indians are eager for completion of them.

Page 241

Item 294

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/04/1873. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 8th month 2nd 1873.

Page 241

Item 295

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/09/75. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 8th month 9th 1873.

Page 241

Item 296

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/13/73. Returning signed pictures in triplicate for the third quarter of 1873.

Page 242

Item 297

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/13/73. The writer acknowledges receipt of a letter from White and a circular from H. Clum, Acting Commissioner, dated August 6, 1873. The writer lists some unexpended funds on hand 7th month 1st 1873 and the sources of them. Some of these funds were expended to complete buildings in progress. Can the remainder be sent by mail for deposit, or must the writer bring them to Omaha? Some Indian houses are now ready for the carpenter. May the writer buy the materials or shall he let them stand for the present?

Page 243

Item 298

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/16/1873. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 08/16/73.

Page 243

Item 299

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 08/30/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand 8th month 30th 1873.

Page 244

Item 300

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 9th month 1st 1873. In his annual report, the writer states that the Iowas have increased the area of their farms and nearly all have attended to their crops. Although the weather has been very dry, he estimates that their corn will produce thirty to forty bushels to the acre. The Iowas have taken good care of their livestock. They have harvested a much greater quantity of hay than in former years. They almost universally desire to live in houses. Pupils have made satisfactory progress in their school. The industrial home has been enlarged slightly and an 18 by 33 foot structure built. The Society of Friends continues to provide necessity for sick people and clothing for the infirm and indigent. The Sacs and Foxes of Missouri receive a very large annuity and with no school nor employees, they remain “idle and intemperate.” They wish to move to a new home, but the Osages do not desire to sell them land. They now wish to buy land in Indian Territory from the Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi. Congress has passed a law enabling sale of their Nebraska land, but not that in Kansas. A supplementary act should be passed. The writer accompanied the chiefs to Washington. They requested that one-half the proceeds from the sale of the entire reservation be inverted for educational and other beneficial purposes. Their early removal is important.

Page 245

Item 301

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/04/73. Enclosing his annual report in duplicate with statistics on farming and education.

Page 245

Item 302

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/08/73. Enclosing statement of agency funds in bank and on hand for use as of 9th month 6th 1873.

Page 246

Item 303

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 09/12/73. The writer has received a circular letter from E. P. Smith, Commissioner, dated September 6, 1873, in which he was directed to transmit a statement of deficiencies to unexpended balances of Indian appropriations prior to July 1, 1873. Part of it was spent for building materials contracted for prior to July 1, 1873. An additional $11.25 was deposited to the treasurer of the United States in the Omaha National Bank.

Page 247

Item 304

Thomas Lightfoot to Barclay White, 10/01/73. The writer has mailed his returns for the third quarter of 1873 to the recipient. Agent Roberts is at the agency and Lightfoot has turned all the money and property belonging to the Great Nemaha Agency over to him.

Page 254-256

 

Accounts of transactions in behalf of the agency December 1874-1880. Clothing, medications, a horse, and other items are listed.

Page 260-268

 

Accounts with the Hobart (Nebraska) store, 1875. Most of the transactions involve grain. The series is headed, “Account of Grain Received from Store funds to which the persons named are indebted.” Some are to be paid in compliance with notes which are reproduced on succeeding pages of this book. Some are to be paid in grain and some in cash.

Page 344

 

A summary of two payments received for grain transactions, one dated July 13, 1875, and the other February 20, 1876.

Page 368-379

 

“Indians in Account with M. B. Kent.” 1875. A record of grain purchases by Indians, perhaps for seed. There is an additional “fly” page listing some payments and with random figuring.

Page 481-482

 

“Corn Account” Copies of four notes to M. B. Kent, United States Indian agent, in March and April 1875, to pay for corn “purchased from (or “with”) a fund furnished by Philada Friends (or “Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Friends”).

Page 511-514

 

“Wheat Account Hobart Store” or “Hobart Store Wheat Account.” Promissary notes to M. B. Kent for “wheat bought with capital received from wheat store” for which the same number of bushels will be delivered at White Cloud, Kansas.